Product Categories

Leader Joy Industrial Group Ltd

Add:Room401-402, Building 6, No.315, Hongyun Road, Yiwu, Zhejiang, China

Contact Person: Maureen Zhang

Tel:+86-579-85593603

Mob:+86 15967977943,
+86 15157938209

E-mail:maureen@leaderjoy.com

Home > Exhibition > Content
montessori education
- Apr 08, 2018 -

                  Montessori education


"Montessori" redirects here. For other uses, see

Montessori (disambiguation)

"Montessori school" redirects here. For a list of Montessori schools, see

List of Montessori schools

Unbalanced scales.svg

Unbalanced scales.svg

The

of this ar

The Montessori Method of education, developed by Dr. Maria Montessori, is a child-centered educational approach based on scientific observations of children from birth to adulthood. Dr. Montessori's Method has been used for over 100 years in many parts of the world.[2]

The Montessori method views the child as one who is naturally eager for knowledge and capable of initiating learning in a supportive, thoughtfully prepared learning environment. It attempts to develop children physically, socially, emotionally and cognitively.[2]

Although a range of practices exist under the name "Montessori", the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI) and the American Montessori Society (AMS) cite these elements as essential:[3][2]

Contents

A wide brick building with dormer windows projecting from its roof and a white wooden wing on the left, seen from slightly downhill

A wide brick building with dormer windows projecting from its roof and a white wooden wing on the left, seen from slightly downhill

The

Scarborough School

at the

Edward Harden Mansion

in

Sleepy Hollow, NY

, listed on the

National Register of Historic Places

as the site of the first American Montessori school in 1911

A wide brick building with dormer windows projecting from its roof and a white wooden wing on the left, seen from slightly downhill

A wide brick building with dormer windows projecting from its roof and a white wooden wing on the left, seen from slightly downhill

The

Scarborough School

at the

Edward Harden Mansion

in

Sleepy Hollow, NY

, listed on the

National Register of Historic Places

as the site of the first American Montessori school in 1911

Following her medical training, Dr. Maria Montessori began to develop her educational philosophy and methods in 1897, attending courses in pedagogy at the University of Rome and reading the educational theory of the previous two hundred years.[4] In 1907, she opened her first classroom, the Casa dei Bambini, or Children's House, in a tenement building in Rome.[5] From the beginning, Montessori based her work on her observations of children and experimentation with the environment, materials, and lessons available to them. She frequently referred to her work as "scientific pedagogy".

In 1901, Maria Montessori met Alice and Leopoldo Franchetti (Baroness & Baron) of Città di Castello. They found many matching points between their work. Maria Montessori was invited to hold her first course for teachers and to set up a "Casa dei Bambini" at Villa Montesca, the home of the Franchettis in Città di Castello. Maria Montessori decided to move to Città di Castello where she lived for 2 years and where she refined her methodology together with Alice Franchetti. In that period, she published her book in Città di Castello. The Franchetti Barons financed the publication of the book and the methodology had the name "Method Franchetti-Montessori". Alice Franchetti died in 1911 at 37.

Montessori education had spread to the United States by 1912 and became widely known in educational and popular publications. However, conflict arose between Montessori and the American educational establishment. The 1914 critical booklet The Montessori System Examined, by influential education teacher William Heard Kilpatrick, limited the spread of her ideas, and they languished after 1914. Montessori education returned to the United States in 1960 and has since spread to thousands of schools there. Montessori continued to extend her work during her lifetime, developing a comprehensive model of psychological development from birth to age 24, as well as educational approaches for children ages 0 to 3, 3 to 6, and 6 to 12.

Montessori education also spread throughout the world, including Southeast Asia and India, where Maria Montessori was interned during World War II.

A Montessori classroom in the United States.

A Montessori classroom in the United States.

Montessori education is fundamentally a model of human development, and an educational approach based on that model. The model has two basic principles. First, children and developing adults engage in psychological self-construction by means of interaction with their environments. Second, children, especially under the age of six, have an innate path of psychological development. Based on her observations, Montessori believed that children who are at liberty to choose and act freely within an environment prepared according to her model would act spontaneously for optimal development.

Montessori saw universal, innate characteristics in human psychology which her son and collaborator Mario Montessori identified as "human tendencies" in 1957. There is some debate about the exact list, but the following are clearly identified:[6]

In the Montessori approach, these human tendencies are seen as driving behavior in every stage of development, and education should respond to and facilitate their expression.

Montessori education involves free activity within a "prepared environment", meaning an educational environment tailored to basic human characteristics, to the specific characteristics of children at different ages, and to the individual personalities of each child.[7] The function of the environment is to help and allow the child to develop independence in all areas according to his or her inner psychological directives. In addition to offering access to the Montessori materials appropriate to the age of the children, the environment should exhibit the following characteristics:[8]

Montessori observed four distinct periods, or "planes", in human development, extending from birth to 6 years, from 6 to 12, from 12 to 18, and from 18 to 24. She saw different characteristics, learning modes, and developmental imperatives active in each of these planes, and called for educational approaches specific to each period.[9][10]

The first plane extends from birth to around six years of age. During this period, Montessori observed that the child undergoes striking physical and psychological development. The first-plane child is seen as a concrete, sensorial explorer and learner engaged in the developmental work of psychological self-construction and building functional independence. Montessori introduced several concepts to explain this work, including the absorbent mind, sensitive periods, and normalization.

Montessori described the young child's behavior of effortlessly assimilating the sensorial stimuli of his or her environment, including information from the senses, language, culture, and the development of concepts with the term "absorbent mind". She believed that this is a power unique to the first plane, and that it fades as the child approached age six.[11] Montessori also observed and discovered periods of special sensitivity to particular stimuli during this time which she called the "sensitive periods". In Montessori education, the classroom environment responds to these periods by making appropriate materials and activities available while the periods are active in each individual young child. She identified the following periods and their durations:[12]

Finally, Montessori observed in children from three to six years old a psychological state she termed "normalization".[13] Normalization arises from concentration and focus on activity which serves the child's developmental needs, and is characterized by the ability to concentrate as well as "spontaneous discipline, continuous and happy work, social sentiments of help and sympathy for others."[14]

The second plane of development extends from around six years to twelve years old. During this period, Montessori observed physical and psychological changes in children, and developed a classroom environment, lessons, and materials, to respond to these new characteristics. Physically, she observed the loss of baby teeth and the lengthening of the legs and torso at the beginning of the plane, and a period of uniform growth following. Psychologically, she observed the "herd instinct", or the tendency to work and socialize in groups, as well as the powers of reason and imagination. Developmentally, she believed the work of the second plane child is the formation of intellectual independence, of moral sense, and of social organization.[15]

The third plane of development extends from around twelve years to around eighteen years of age, encompassing the period of adolescence. Montessori characterized the third plane by the physical changes of puberty and adolescence, but also psychological changes. She emphasized the psychological instability and difficulties in concentration of this age, as well as the creative tendencies and the development of "a sense of justice and a sense of personal dignity." She used the term "valorization" to describe the adolescents' drive for an externally derived evaluation of their worth. Developmentally, Montessori believed that the work of the third plane child is the construction of the adult self in society.[16]

The fourth plane of development extends from around eighteen years to around twenty-four years old. Montessori wrote comparatively little about this period and did not develop an educational program for the age. She envisioned young adults prepared by their experiences in Montessori education at the lower levels ready to fully embrace the study of culture and the sciences in order to influence and lead civilization. She believed that economic independence in the form of work for money was critical for this age, and felt that an arbitrary limit to the number of years in university level study was unnecessary, as the study of culture could go on throughout a person's life.[17]

In short, four core aspects of montessori school include, practical life, sensorial, math, and language arts. Some smaller aspects that could be integrated into montessori schools include geography, art, and gardening.

As Montessori developed her theory and practice, she came to believe that education had a role to play in the development of world peace.[18] She felt that children allowed to develop according to their inner laws of development would give rise to a more peaceful and enduring civilization. From the 1930s to the end of her life, she gave a number of lectures and addresses on the subject saying in 1936,

Preventing conflicts is the work of politics; establishing peace is the work of education.[19]

She received a total of six nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize in a three-year period: 1949, 1950, and 1951.[20][21]

Elementary Montessori peace curriculum starts with Five Great Lessons that give a big picture of the world and life. They are educational stories that also spark the imagination of the students. The Five Great Lessons are - The Beginning of the Universe and Earth, Life Comes to Earth, Human Come to Earth, How Writing Began, and How Numbers Began. It is important to not rush through them and give time for research in between. It is also important to share these


Previous: No Information